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Pratt Parsing


  • Also known as top-down operator precedence parsing
  • Based on recursive descent
  • Terminology used in the original paper:
    1. Null denotation (nud) - Operator that has no left context (prefix operator): -1, !
    2. Left denotation (led) - Operator that has a left context (infix operator): 1 + 2

Problem with Recursive Descent

  • RD is straightforward when you know exactly what comes next
    • Uniquely identified by if, for, while, ...
  • It gets tricky when you get an expression

    • Especially when it comes to infix operators (+), postfix operators (++) or mixfix operators (?:)
    • Often, you only know which expression you are dealing with when you are halfway through
    • Traditionally, precedence is encoded directly into the grammar by splitting it into the different levels of precedence

      function expression() {
        /* ... */
      function term() {
        /* ... */
      function factor() {
        /* ... */
    • This is tedious when you have many different operators

Pratt Parsing

If recursive descent is peanut butter, Pratt parsing is jelly. When you mix the two together, you get a simple, terse, readable parser that can handle any grammar you throw at it.
// Somewhere outside we have a Map<Operator, Precedence>
function parseExpression(precedence = 0) {
  token = consume();
  left = parsePrefix(token);

  // When parsing an expression for a specific precedence,
  // stop when we encounter an operator with less precedence
  // than what we are parsing right now
  while (precedence < getPrecedence(peek())) {
    token = consume();
    left = parseInfix(left, token);

  return left;
  • If an infix operator calls parseExpression() with the same precedene, it will yield left associativity
  • For right associativity, you call it with (precedence - 1)


Last update: January 15, 2021